Mandating refundable deposits on hazardous

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In 1982 the Swedish government threatened to ban the use of aluminum beverage cans for beer and soft drinks unless they achieved a recycling rate of 75 percent by 1985.

After trying several collection schemes, including curbside recycling programs, the aluminum industry determined that the only way they could achieve a 75 percent rate was through a deposit/refund system. 1) Figure 1 The idea of EPR is much older than any of the European laws.

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The aluminum can recycling rate was 63 percent when PLM introduced the voluntary system in March 1984. The deposit refund system for refillable glass beer and soft drink bottles, adopted by the beverage industry in the U. nearly 100 years ago, is perhaps the earliest form of EPR system.

By 1987 the recycling rate had increased to 75 percent, and in 1995 the rate was 92 percent, 30 percentage points higher than the U. While there are many definitions of EPR, it is generally described as a pollution prevention policy that focuses on product systems rather than production facilities.

Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires; the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia.

In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, and Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.

It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east.

In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

Deposit-refund system are a market-based instrument to address externalities.

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