Birthdating studies

In addition, in the postnatal mouse retina, using a combination of tritiated-thymidine birthdating and immunohistochemistry to distinguish bipolar types, we have similarly found that cone bipolar genesis precedes rod bipolar genesis.

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Defects in neural development can lead to malformations and a wide variety of sensory, motor, and cognitive impairments, including holoprosencephaly and other neurological disorders such as Rett syndrome, Down syndrome and intellectual disability.

The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is derived from the ectoderm—the outermost tissue layer—of the embryo.

In this study, we have examined the birth order of rod and cone bipolar cells in the developing mouse and rat Using retroviral lineage analysis with the histochemical marker alkaline phosphatase, the percentage of cone and rod bipolar cells born on postnatal day 0 (P0), P4, and P6 were determined, based upon the well characterized morphology of these cells in the adult rat retina.

In this experiment, we have demonstrated that cone bipolar genesis clearly precedes rod bipolar genesis.

A groove forms along the long axis of the neural plate and, by week four of development, the neural plate wraps in on itself to give rise to the neural tube, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

As the embryo develops, the anterior part of the neural tube forms a series of bulges called vesicles, which become the primary anatomical regions of the brain: the forebrain (prosencephalon), midbrain (mesencephalon), and hindbrain (rhombencephalon).

It is therefore critical that the developmental timecourse of new neurons be mapped out, so we know when new neurons become functionally relevant, or whether they might even have different functions at different ages.

Below are what I hope to be comprehensive visual collages of all published timecourse experiments, where a certain property of new neurons is examined at multiple (≥ 3) different ages.

Retinal bipolar cells comprise a diverse group of neurons.

Cone bipolar cells and rod bipolar cells are so named for their connections with cone and rod photoreceptors, respectively.

Cells that retained maximum labeling are those that exited the cell cycle (born) on the day of 3Hd T administration.

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